En 2016, la gouvernance s’est détériorée dans la plupart des pays de l’Afrique subsaharienne

La dernière évaluation des politiques et institutions publiques en Afrique réalisée par la Banque mondiale met en évidence une baisse de la qualité des politiques et des institutions en Afrique subsaharienne en 2016. Cette tendance a été observée dans 40 % des pays évalués en 2016 et particulièrement dans certaines catégories de pays, notamment les pays exportateurs de matières premières et les États fragiles. C’est ce qu’indique la dernière évaluation annuelle des politiques et institutions publiques en Afrique connue sous l’acronyme « CPIA », réalisée par la Banque mondiale. C’est un exercice annuel qui permet à cette institution de Bretton Woods de mesurer les progrès accomplis par les pays d’Afrique subsaharienne pour améliorer la qualité de leurs politiques et de leurs institutions. Ces notes reposent sur 16 indicateurs de développement dans quatre domaines : la gestion économique, les politiques structurelles, les politiques d’insertion sociale et d’équité, la gestion et les institutions du secteur public. Les pays sont notés sur une échelle de 1 (note la plus faible) à 6 (note la plus élevée) pour chaque indicateur, la note globale étant égale à la moyenne des quatre domaines évalués. Selon l’évaluation, les pays exportateurs de matières premières, la plupart éligible aux programmes de l’Association internationale de développement (IDA), sont ceux ayant le plus plongé. Ces pays ont connu un repli au niveau de leur politique monétaire et de change, entamant l’assainissement budgétaire, ce qui a provoqué l’envol de l’endettement. L’institution financière explique cette contre-performance par la conjoncture économique marquée essentiellement par la chute des prix des matières premières. Le Rwanda est le premier pays de la Région où la qualité de la politique et des institutions s’est renforcée. Suivent le Sénégal et le Kenya. La Côte d’Ivoire, les Comores, le Cameroun, la Guinée, Madagascar, la Mauritanie et le Soudan ont également connu une amélioration de leur gouvernance. Certes, la qualité de la politique et des institutions s’est renforcée dans certains pays, mais le nombre de pays qui ont vu leurs notes globales se détériorer est deux fois plus important.

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